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#1 2019-10-24 07:54:21

Richman
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Психология

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2019-10-24 07:54:21

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Re: Психология



#2 2020-06-06 07:00:16

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Re: Психология

Unfortunately, our knowledge of defenses is analogous to
knowledge  by  nineteenth-century  astronomers  of  the  planet
Pluto. Pluto could not be directly visualized, measured, or even
identified as a  single planet. Nevertheless, the tangible reality of
Pluto could be appreciated by its systematic distortion of orbits
of planets that were visible. In similar fashion  the observer iden-
tifies a  user's invisible defenses by noting systematic distortions.
The  problem  of  the  measurement  of  defenses  is  even  more
difficult  than  that  of  unseen  planets;  for  defense  mechanisms
refer to unifying processes rather than discrete entities.

George E. Vaillant, Adaptation to Life

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#3 2020-06-06 07:14:50

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Re: Психология

Over a  period of forty years, Freud recognized most of the de-
fense  mechanisms  that we  speak of today  and  identified  five  of
their  most  important  properties:
(I)  Defenses  were  a  major
means  of managing  instinct  and  affect. 
(2)  They  were  uncon-
scious. 
(3)  They  were  discrete  from  one  another. 
(4)  Although
often  the  hallmarks  of  major  psychiatric  syndromes,  defenses
were dynamic and reversible.
(5) Finally, they could be adaptive
as well as pathological.

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#4 2020-06-06 07:21:01

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Re: Психология

That aggressive instincts, against which
so many of the defenses are erected, were potentially useful and
constructive.

Anna Freud

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#5 2020-07-07 07:00:19

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Re: Психология

The gratified child can postpone gratification, and adults only act "spoiled" if they have received too little love - not too much.

George E. Vaillant, Adaptation to Life

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#6 2020-07-11 07:26:52

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Re: Психология

Intellectualization is a defense mechanism by which reasoning is used to block confrontation with an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress – where thinking is used to avoid feeling
Intellectualization is a transition to reason, where the person avoids uncomfortable emotions by focusing on facts and logic. The situation is treated as an interesting problem that engages the person on a rational basis, whilst the emotional aspects are completely ignored as being irrelevant.
Jargon is often used as a device of intellectualization. By using complex terminology, the focus becomes on the words and finer definitions rather than the human effects.
Intellectualization protects against anxiety by repressing the emotions connected with an event.

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#7 2020-07-11 07:33:12

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Re: Психология

Repression is a type of psychological defense mechanism that involves keeping certain thoughts, feelings, or urges out of conscious awareness. ... This process involves pushing painful or disturbing thoughts into the unconscious in order to remain unaware of them.

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#8 2020-07-11 07:37:15

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Denial is a defense mechanism which involves a refusal to accept reality, thus blocking external events from awareness. If a situation is just too much to handle, the person may respond by refusing to perceive it or by denying that it exist.

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#9 2020-07-11 07:39:27

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Re: Психология

Displacement is a psychological defense mechanism in which a person redirects a negative emotion from its original source to a less threatening recipient that is less likely to come with repercussions. A classic example of the defense is displaced aggression.

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#10 2020-07-11 07:41:50

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Dissociation as a psychological defence mechanism. Dissociation is a disconnection from events and states that are usually integrated. ... This dissociation means the person is emotionally withdrawn from their healthy sense of self and the world, and this cannot protect against future trauma.

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#11 2020-07-11 07:43:04

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Re: Психология

Reaction formation is a kind of psychological defense mechanism in which a person perceives their true feelings or desires to be socially or, in some cases, legally unacceptable, and so they attempt to convince themselves or others that the opposite is true--often in a very exaggerated performance.

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#12 2020-07-15 05:24:19

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Re: Психология

Freud пишет:

I have omitted to state whether I attribute different meanings to the words 'suppressed' and 'repressed'. It should have been clear, however, that the latter lays more stress than the former on the fact of attachment  to  the unconscious.

  Suppression  implies an element of choice and a  conscious awareness of the affective significance of the  idea,  and  repression  does  not.

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#13 2020-07-23 07:19:23

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Re: Психология

To  summarize,  isolation  leaves  the  idea  in  consciousness, stripped of all affect. ("I think of killing him, but I feel no anger.") In contrast, repression leaves the affect in consciousness,  but so stripped of conscious  ideation  that even  the object remains  obscure.  ("I  feel  angry  today,  but  I  cannot  think  at whom.")  Displacement  allows  the  subject's  conflict-inducing idea  and  affect  to  remain  linked  but  directed  toward  a  less dangerous object. ("Today, after lunch with him, I got very angry at my  dog.")  Reaction  formation  allows  the  subject  to  keep  in consciousness an idea and affect  that are quite opposite to those in his  unconscious.  ("It's my Christian duty  to  love him.") Dissociation permits  the ego  to  so alter the  subject's  internal state that  the pain of conflict  becomes  irrelevant.  ("Every  time  I  see him, we get drunk and laugh over old times.")

George E. Vaillant, Adaptation to Life

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#14 2020-07-23 18:52:59

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Re: Психология

Ну Ричмана понесло. Со словарем надо читать.

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#15 2020-07-29 08:50:36

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Re: Психология

projection is a defense mechanism in which the human ego defends itself against unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.
For example, a bully may project their own feelings of vulnerability onto the target. It incorporates blame shifting and can manifest as shame dumping.

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Поблагодарил:

Roza

#16 2020-08-02 10:10:59

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Re: Психология

We think of the  paranoid as  aggressive;  but  in  fact,  no  defense  is  so  highly
correlated with the traits of self-doubt, pessimism, and passivity.
...
Although we  think of the paranoid as exceedingly selfish,  the kinship between projection and altruism is fascinating. Both empathy  and  projection  result  in  a  merging  of  individual  boundaries. But to empathize is  to perceive clearly and to put yourself in  the  other  person's  shoes,  not  him  in  yours.

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